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3G ба 4G технологи

 Монголд дөнгөж Жи-Мобайл, Мобиком хоёр 3G технологийг оруулж ирж байхад цаана чинь америк 4G технологийг суурилуулаад явж байна гэнэ шүү. “Long-Term Evolution” хэмээн нэрлээд буй “Verizon”-ы шинэ утасгүй холбооны технологийн түрүүч хэсэг нь 2010 онд АНУ-ын зарим бүс нутагт нэвтрэх ажээ. Энэ технологийн ачаар хэрэглэгчид шилэн кабелийн хурдны хэмжээнд интернэтэд холбогдож, аливаа зүйлийг татаж авахдхаа энгийн компьютер дээр ажиллаж байгаа мэт хурдан гүйцэтгэх боломжтой болох юм.
Хэн хүнгүй 4G – г ихээхэн хүсэж байгаа ч бид капитализмыг алгасч морьтойгоо харайж байгаа зургаараа явах гээд байж болохгүй ээ. Жимобайл 3G нэвтрүүлсэн гээд бусад нь 4 рүү орно гэж байхгүй байх, ... өөр өөрийн хэрэглэгчтэй, өөр өөрийн системтэй.
Мэдээлэл холбооны салбар, үүрэн холбооны хувьд моод Монголоор дуусдаг гэдэг тохирохгүй, харин ч энэ салбар Монголд бусад салбараасаа түргэн хурдацтай, зөв зохистой өрсөлдөөнтэй хөгжиж, нэг хүнд ноогдох үзүүлэлтээрээ бас ч гайгүй дээгүүр яваа байж магадгүй.

G- Generation буюу үе, үүсэл, удам гэсэн үг. Үүрэн холбооны ертөнцөд түүний технологийн хөгжлийн үе шатыг 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G, 4G гэж авч үзэж байна. Одоогоор 1G, 2G -гээд одоо 3G буюу хөгжлийн 3 дахь үе шатандаа орж байна гэсэн үг. (Хүний 5 мэдрэхүйтэй холбоогүй гэж бодож байна.)

Үүрэн холбооны хөгжлийн түүх өнөөг хүртэл технологиосоо хамаараад CDMA ба GSM гэсэн хоёр тусдаа яригдаж ирсэн. G-үүдийн аль алинд нь өрсөлдөгч технологиуд хөгжиж байв. Харин 4G үед эдгээрийн ялгаа арилж дэлхий нийтээрээ нэг технологийн системд нэвтрэх байх гэж би ойлгоод байгаа.

Эхний үе шат буюу 1G нь 1980 аад оны эхээр эхэлсэн ба AMPS (Advansed Mobile Phone Service) сүлжээнд үндэслэн гaрч ирсэн. AMPS сүлжээ нь FDMA (Frequency Division Multuplex Access) буюу давтамжийн нягтруулгатай системийг ашиглаж 800МГц-ийн зурвасд аналог дуу дамжуулдаг байв.
Хоёр дахь үе буюу 2G нь 1990 -ээд онд гарч ирсэн ба оператор компаниуд CDMA ба GSM гэсэн хоёр өрсөлдөгч стандартыг хэрэглэж эхлэв. Хойд Америкийн зарим операторууд CDMA-г хэрэгжүүлсэн ба дэлхийн бусад операторууд GSM- хэрэгжүүлсэн байна. CDMA нь 800 МГц-ийн зурвасд нэг сувгаар 64 яриаг нягтруулан явуулдаг, GSM нь 900МГц болон 1800МГц -ийн зурвасд нэг сувгаар 8 яриаг нягтруулан явуулдаг.
Дэлхийн цахилгаан холбооны байгууллагаас (ITU) үүрэн холбооны зурвасыг өсгөх, олон төрлийн үйлчилгээний боломжийг хөгжүүлэх 3G буюу IMT 2000 - стандартыг гаргасан. Ингэснээр дуунаас гадна, өгөгдөл, дүрс зэрэг багц өгөгдлүүдийг өндөр хурдтай, чанартай дамжуулах боломжийг бий болгох зорилго тавьсан юм.
2G-ээс 3G шилжихэд операторууд хуучин байгаа сүлжээгээ шинэ бродбанд сүлжээ болгох шаардлага гарсан. Энэ ажлыг 3GPP ба 3GPP2 гэсэн хоёр ялгаж авч үздэг.
3GPP буюу 3rd Generation Partnership Project нь 1998 онд үүссэн ба GSM-ээс уламжлан 3G-г хөгжүүлэх зорилготой. 3GPP нь GPRS (114Kbps), EDGE (384K bps), WCDMA (1.92M bps), HSDPA(14M bps), E-UTRA (100M bps)-г хөгжүүлнэ.
2000 оноос эхлэн IMT 2000 - стандартын хүрээнд GPRS хөгжсөн ба 2003 оноос EDGE хөгжсөн, үүнийг заримдаа 2,5G гэж хэлдэг. Одоо бол EDGE нь HSDPA –аар солигдсон. GSM операторуудын дараагийн үе бол LTE E-UTRA гэж байгаа. (Long Term Evolution)
3GPP2 буюу 3rd Generation Partnership Project -2 нь CDMA2000 ашигладаг Хойд америк ба Азийн зарим операторууд 3G нэвтрүүлэх зорилготой. 3GPP2 нь 1xRTT (144Kbps), EV-DO (2.4M bps), UMB (288M bps) -г хөгжүүлнэ.
2002 оноос эхлэн 1xRTT хөгжсөн ба мөн үүнийг заримдаа 2,5G гэж хэлдэг. 3GPP2-ийн одоо хөгжих үе бол UMB гэж байгаа ч олон CDMA операторууд LTE-руу шууд орох хандлага байна.
LTE болон UMB – г 4G гэж нэрлээд байгаа. Гэхдээ одоогоор эцэслэн стандартчлагдаагүй байгаа байх аа. ITU – гаас LTE, UMB болон Wimax II – уудыг багтаасан 4G стандарт хангах кандидатыг тооцоолон авч үзэж эхэлжээ.
2010 он гэхэд Verizon wireless болон AT&T wireless борлуулалтанд нэвтрүүлэхээр ажиллаж байгаа гэсэн.
4G – ийн зорилго бол 100М bps –ээс багагүй хурд, OFDMA дамжуулах систем, IP based мултимедиа дамжуулал юм. Өөрөөр хэлбэл шилэн кабелийн дамжуулах хурд, LAN сүлжээний компьютер дээр ажиллаж байгаа мэт боломж үүрэн холбооны сүлжээгээр бидэнд олгогдоно гэсэн үг юм.

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